Best Apps For Trading Stocks

If you’ve ever considered investing in the stock market, you’ve probably wondered what the best app for trading stocks is. The truth is, there is no one-size-fits-all app that’s perfect for everyone. That’s because everyone has different needs when it comes to their investments, and those needs change over time as well.

For example: If you’re just getting started with trading stocks, an app that provides tips on how to invest may be a great place to start. But if you’re an experienced investor with a lot of money at stake and are looking for an app that will provide insight into market trends and help you keep track of your portfolio, then an app that provides financial news may be more useful to you.

The good news? There are tons of great apps out there—some free, some paid—that can provide these services. It all depends on what kind of information and support you’re looking for from your investments.

Do you want to boost your website’s traffic?

Take advantage of FLUX DIGITAL RESOURCE seo tools

5 Best Forex Trading Apps In The Market | by Philosopher |  DataDrivenInvestor

Best Apps For Trading Stocks

Ordering lunch. Paying a bill. Tracking your daily steps. Smartphone tasks like these have become everyday habits for millions of people, and now, so has stock trading and investing.

In the highly competitive realm of U.S. online stockbrokers, having a viable mobile app is simply table stakes — for traditional, full-service brokerages like Fidelity and Charles Schwab as well as upstart trendsetters like Robinhood and Webull. The question for any investor, whether you’re a beginner or seasoned active trader, is which stock trading app from this crowded field best suits your particular needs and preferences.

The best stock market apps will stand out across all categories: They’ll be easy to use, have excellent design, deliver a fully featured online trading experience and, not least, offer $0 stock and ETF trades.

For our 2022 Annual Review, we meticulously tested 15 top stock trading apps and reviewed each one across more than 25 different features. To score high marks, a broker had to provide an excellent stock trading experience across many usability categories. Testing was conducted using an iPhone XS (Apple iOS) and Samsung Galaxy S9+ (Android).

Best Stock Trading Apps 2022 2022 Review
Here are the online brokers with the best stock market apps in 2022.

ETRADE – 5 stars – Best Stock App for Traders TD Ameritrade – 5 stars – Best App for Options Fidelity – 5 stars – Best Stock App for Investors Interactive Brokers – 4.5 stars – Best for Professionals TradeStation – 4 stars – Great for Tools and Technology ETRADE Logo
Best Stock App for Traders

Minimum Deposit $0.00
Stock Trades $0.00
Options (Per Contract) $0.65
In our 2022 Review, ETRADE once again ranked among the best because its apps are easy to use and feature-rich. Our recommendation: use ETRADE mobile for stock trading and Power E*TRADE Mobile for options trading. Read full review


Power E*TRADE offers great selection of trading tools
Our top pick for mobile trading and ease of use

$1,000 minimum for streaming data
Range of educational materials is limited compared to peers
TD Ameritrade Logo
Best App for Options

Minimum Deposit $0.00
Stock Trades $0.00
Options (Per Contract) $0.65
TD Ameritrade delivers $0 trades, fantastic trading platforms, excellent market research and industry-leading education for beginners, and two different feature-rich apps – both excellent. Read full review


Excellent education for beginners
thinkorswim platform suite is our top desktop platform for 2022
Futures and forex trading available

$6.95 fee per trade for penny stocks
No access to international stock markets
Fidelity Logo
Best Stock App for Investors

Minimum Deposit $0.00
Stock Trades $0.00
Options (Per Contract) $0.65
Fidelity’s mobile experience is cleanly designed, bug-free and delivers a phenomenal experience for investors. While active traders may be left wanting more, for the majority, Fidelity delivers, winning our award for No. 1 Investor App for the fifth year in a row. Read full review


Excellent mobile app for investors
Our top pick for order execution, no payment for order flow (PFOF)

Margin rates can be higher than those of peers
Mobile app may fall short for active traders
Interactive Brokers Logo
Best for Professionals

Minimum Deposit $0.00
Stock Trades $0.00
Options (Per Contract) $0.65
Mobile trading with Interactive Brokers is well-supported across all devices. From lightning-quick streaming data to full-featured order entry and portfolio management, Interactive Brokers includes everything professionals require to trade on the go. Read full review


Web-based client portal great for casual investors
Offers access to global markets
Robust mobile app

Trader Workstation (TWS) desktop platform best suited for professionals, not beginners
Visit Site open_in_new
EXCLUSIVE: New clients, special margin rates.
TradeStation Logo
Great for Tools and Technology

Minimum Deposit $0.00
Stock Trades $0.00
Options (Per Contract) $0.60
TradeStation’s mobile app is meticulously designed and provides the functionality that active and professional traders need to succeed; and traders can now access their TradeStation crypto account directly through the app. Read full review


Excellent desktop and web-based trading platforms
Great for professionals
Offers cryptocurrency trading

Research trails industry leaders
Educational content split between two sites
Scored poorly for customer service
Other Trading Apps
In addition to our top five stock trading apps in 2022, we reviewed 10 others: Ally Invest, Charles Schwab, Firstrade, J.P. Morgan Self-Directed Investing, Merrill Edge, SoFi Invest, Tradier, Robinhood, Vanguard and Webull. To dive deeper, read our reviews.

Best stock trading apps comparison
As smartphones become just as capable as the average laptop computer, it’s no surprise that traders demand the same features found in desktop trading platforms to be available in their stock trading app counterparts. But the manner in which those tools are integrated matters significantly.

Features such as real-time streaming quotes, charting with multiple indicators, and synced watch lists are commonly found; other basic offerings might be missing in action. For example, fewer than 50% of stock apps support basic stock alerts.

The best mobile apps manage to pack more tools under the hood in a way that doesn’t make finding what you need overly complex, whether by swiping, tapping a menu or choosing from a drop-down list. See below how our top three finishers measure up.

Looking for forex trading apps? See our picks for best forex trading apps on our sister site,

Feature E*TRADE TD Ameritrade Fidelity
Market Movers (Top Gainers) Yes Yes Yes
Stream Live TV Yes Yes Yes
Videos on Demand No Yes Yes
Stock Alerts Yes Yes Yes
Option Chains Viewable Yes Yes Yes
Watch List (Real-time) Yes Yes Yes
Watch List (Streaming) Yes Yes Yes
Watch Lists – Create & Manage Yes Yes Yes
Watch Lists – Column Customization Yes Yes Yes
Watch List – Column Filtering Yes Yes Yes
Comparison Tool: Compare 100+ features side-by-side

Lowest Cost Broker
Trade stocks, options, futures, forex, & bonds worldwide from a single integrated account. Visit Site

Winner: ETRADE ETRADE logo
ETRADE ranks at the top for its mobile app suite, available for both iPhone and Android devices. The ETRADE package consists of the ETRADE Mobile app, optimized for everyday investing, and the vibrant Power ETRADE app, geared more toward trading.

E*TRADE Mobile has lots of features tucked away and is great not just for beginners, but more demanding investors as well, with a surprising amount of depth and variety of tools. There are advanced research reports, and charting comes with 10 indicators. It’s easy to navigate the app and discover new features.

Power E*TRADE, in comparison, offers complex orders for trading, including advanced options orders, and more than 100 charting indicators. It’s a high-powered platform with sophisticated tools for active traders, but its modern design and interface make the app easy to use.

Runner-Up: TD Ameritrade
TD Ameritrade logo
A top contender among mobile apps in 2022 for both iPhone and Android devices, TD Ameritrade offers two powerful apps and $0 commissions when you trade. The suite consists of TD Ameritrade Mobile, which closely resembles the client web portal; and the powerful thinkorswim app, whose tools and advanced charting mirror what’s found in its web and desktop counterparts.

TD Ameritrade Mobile is great for everyday investors, with features such as news, price alerts, syncing watch lists and basic charts, along with ratings and research reports from third-party providers.

The thinkorswim mobile app comes with some of the most advanced charting packages available via mobile, with over 400 indicators — that’s significant for technical analysis pros. The ability to prepare complex order types is also made easy thanks to an intelligent layout and design. Traders can access news headlines and TV streams from CNBC alongside the TD Ameritrade Network, with nonstop broadcasting throughout the trading week.

Podium Finisher: Fidelity
Fidelity logo
Fidelity offers multiple mobile apps for Android and iPhone devices, with its investing app the primary offering for trading and everyday investing. Whether you’re doing your banking, transferring money between accounts, managing orders or placing trades, Fidelity’s investing app is excellent for everyday investors and in 2022 won our No. 1 Investor App award for the fifth consecutive year.

The app features streaming TV from Bloomberg, consistent with Fidelity’s Active Trader Pro desktop platform, in addition to a personalized feed, news headlines and research. Drawbacks: Charting is basic, and the app is not optimized for day trading or more demanding traders. The layout, however, is excellent; and with innovative features continually being added, users can also toggle to a Beta Experience for a more simplified version.

What is the best free trading app?
The best free stock trading app is from ETRADE. Unlike most brokers, ETRADE offers two apps: ETRADE Mobile and the Power ETRADE app. ETRADE Mobile is designed for casual investors, while the Power ETRADE app is designed for the feature-hungry active trader. Both apps are top-notch.

Best trading app: ETRADE mobile ETRADE mobile watchlist ETRADE mobile advanced charting ETRADE mobile Earnings Move Analyzer E*TRADE mobile Snapshot P&L
How do I choose the best stock trading app?
Now that all stock apps offer $0 stock trades, we recommend comparing other features to choose the best stock trading app. The most widely used stock app features are watch lists, stock charts, and order tickets, so make sure those are great. To help readers, we include full screenshots of each stock trading app in our broker reviews.

Fun fact: Not all stock trading apps offer real-time streaming quotes. Instead, some apps only refresh stock quotes every few seconds or longer. Watch lists aside, apps like TD Ameritrade and TradeStation provide excellent stock chart tools and stock alerts functionality. Both brokers offer traders access to several hundred technical indicators in addition to endless customization options.

What is the best trading app for beginners?
For beginners in 2022, the best stock trading apps are ETRADE and TD Ameritrade. Between the two brokers, TD Ameritrade has the edge for educational resources and trading tools. Meanwhile, ETRADE stands out for ease of use.

ETRADE mobile account overview ETRADE mobile stock quote TD Ameritrade mobile watchlists TD Ameritrade mobile trade ticket
What apps let you trade stocks for free?
Many brokers today offer commission-free trading, also known as zero-dollar commissions. Our picks for the best apps for trading stocks for free come from the following brokers in 2022:

Fidelity – Fidelity mobile app for Android and iOS devices
Interactive Brokers – IBKR mobile and IMPACT app for Android and iOS devices
Charles Schwab – Schwab mobile app for Android and iOS devices
TradeStation – TradeStation mobile app for Android and iOS devices
TD Ameritrade – TD Ameritrade app and thinkorswim mobile for Android and iOS
ETRADE – ETRADE app and Power E*TRADE mobile app for Android and iOS
What is the safest stock app?
The safest stock apps come from the overall best and most trustworthy brokers. The following brokers offer the safest stock apps in 2022:

E*TRADE: Best stock app for traders
TD Ameritrade: Best app for options
Fidelity: Best stock app for investors
Interactive Brokers: Best for professionals
TradeStation: Great for tools and technology

The best apps allow login with biometrics (fingerprint or retina, for example) and other features such as two-factor authentication to reduce the chance of accounts being hacked.

Most importantly, a broker that has proper security measures across its websites, platforms and applications will have you covered in the event of a compromise.

What app gives you free stock?
Apps from brokers like Webull and Robinhood may give you a small amount of a stock of their choice — usually one or two shares — as a way to incentivize you to trade and invest, subject to certain terms and eligibility conditions.

Often the free shares will be given after you first open and fund a new brokerage account, or when you complete certain actions for the first time, such as linking your bank account.

What is the best stock trading app for iPhone?
Our thorough product testing of stock trading apps includes evaluation of iPhone functionality. Here are’s top choices 2022, alongside their user ratings from Apple’s app store:

ETRADE: ETRADE Mobile — user rating 4.6 stars | Power E*TRADE — user rating 4.5 stars
TD Ameritrade: TD Ameritrade Mobile — user rating 4.5 stars | thinkorswim app — user rating 4.7 stars
Fidelity: Fidelity mobile app for iPhone — user rating 4.8 stars
Interactive Brokers: IBKR mobile app — user rating 2.6 stars | IMPACT app — user rating 4.6 stars
TradeStation: TradeStation app — user rating 4.6 stars
What is the best stock trading app for Android? thoroughly tests stock trading apps on both iPhone and Android devices. For 2022, these are our top picks for mobile functionality and ease of use, along with the apps’ user ratings on Google Play.

ETRADE: ETRADE Mobile — user rating 4.2 stars | Power E*TRADE — user rating 3.7 stars
TD Ameritrade: TD Ameritrade Mobile — user rating 3.5 stars | thinkorswim app — user rating 3.9 stars
Fidelity: Fidelity mobile app for Android — user rating 4.3 stars
Interactive Brokers: IBKR mobile app — user rating 3.2 stars | IMPACT app — user rating 4.4 stars
TradeStation: TradeStation app — user rating 3.7 stars
Can I start trading with $100?
Yes. Nowadays, most online brokers offer no minimum deposit to open an account, commission-free stock and ETF trades, as well as the availability of fractional shares. As a result, new traders can start trading with a small investment such as $100. To compare features and pricing, use our online broker comparison tool.

Which investing app is right for me?
Your level of experience with investing and your areas of interest in stock trading will help you identify the best investing app for you. Based on extensive testing, here are’s recommendations:

best trading app to earn money

Nowadays anyone can trade from home with their Smartphones. Trade is when someone buys shares of a company. You can easily buy and trade shares of a company. Today from this article you will know about the 10 best trading apps in India 2022. With these stock market trading apps, you can easily buy shares of any company. After some time if you get a good profit then you can sell shares and earn a good profit from it.

There was a time when we had to take the help of a stockbroker for stock trading. But now that day is no more. Now you can easily trade with the help of the best trading apps in India.

You have to pay some charges (AMC Charges) but I feel Stock Market Trading through mobile apps helps us a lot. It saves our time thus we can research better and invest our money. These best trading apps in India 2022 come with a clean and easy to understand interface, zero brokerage fee, paperless and fastest Demat account opening.

10 Best Trading Apps in India To Earn Money
Page Contents
10 Best Trading Apps in India To Earn Money

  1. Upstox Pro Trading App
  2. Groww Trading App
  3. Paytm Money
  4. Zerodha Trading App
  5. 5Paisa Trading App
  6. IIFL Securities
  7. ShareKhan Trading App
  8. SBI Securities
    Difference Between Intraday and Delivery Trading
    How To Do Intraday Trading?
    How To Do Delivery Trading?
    FAQs: Best Trading Apps

Trading Apps Referral Commission App Link

  1. Upstox ₹200 Download Now
  2. Groww ₹100 Download Now
  3. Paytm Money ₹300 Download Now
  4. Zerodha 10% Commission Download Now
  5. 5Paisa 40% Commission Download Now
  6. IIFL Markets ₹500 Voucher Download Now
  7. ShareKhan 15% Commission Download Now
  8. SBI Securities ₹750 Voucher Download Now
  9. Angel Broking ₹750 Amazon Voucher Download Now
  10. HDFC Securities ₹500 Gift Voucher Download Now
  11. Upstox Pro Trading App
    If you are looking for the best trading apps in India 2022, then you can check out our Upstox App Review article. I feel Upstox is the best trading app in India. It has a lot of reasons. Let me tell you. Upstox Pro will help you trade in shares, F&O, equity derivatives. Previously its name was RKSV Securities but now it’s known as Upstox Pro. It comes with a web version (pro web platform) and a mobile app for all users.

Here you can check the top 20 market cap in the Watchlist tab. Multiple shares will be shown here. You can choose any of the shares and buy them according to your limit. With the help of extensive charts here, you can invest in Stocks, Mutual Funds, IPOs, ETFs etc. Recently Upstox Pro discontinued the Gold investment option in the trading app.

This app comes with zero commission on stock, mutual funds trading. But you have to pay 0.05% or ₹20 whichever is lower for all intraday, F&O, commodities and currency orders.

Upstox Refer and Earn
The Upstox Pro app comes with a referral offer. If you want to earn money free by referring friends then you can take benefit of the ”Upstox refer and earn” offer. For a new referral, you will get a ₹200 in your Upstox wallet. If your referred friend opens their Upstox account then you will get a ₹100 and if they traded for the first time then you will get another ₹100 from them. Apart from these, you will also get ₹1000 brokerage credit to trade at ₹0 brokerage charges for the first 30 days.

Anytime you can withdraw your Upstox referral amount into your Bank account. They will take 2-3 days and after that, you will get paid by the Upstox team. If you are a blogger, YouTuber then you can join the Upstox Partner Program too.

  1. Groww Trading App
    If you are a beginner then the Groww app will be the best trading app for you. It is one of the simplest trading apps in India but so powerful. In terms of securities and processing, it is a really great app. You don’t have to pay any charges for Demat and Trading account opening.

There is two option available in the app such as Explore and Dashboard. In the explore tab you can check the advanced charts and check all the stocks prices, top gainers, top losers in one place. You can invest your money in stocks and mutual funds through the Groww app.

In this Groww app, there is no account opening or AMC Charges. You have to pay ₹20 or 0.05% (whichever is lower) per day for intraday, F&O, currency and commodity transactions. Apart from this, you can withdraw ₹50,000 or 90% of the total money invested per day.

Groww Refer and Earn
A lot of people use the Groww app to earn money by referring friends. You don’t need to invest your money but still, you can earn money from this app. If you have a lot of friends then you can simply refer them and earn money if they join through your link and open their Demat account on the Groww app. The person who will join through your link will get a ₹100 cashback and you will also get a ₹100 cashback in your Groww wallet. If you wish you can invest this money to buy stocks or mutual funds or you can withdraw it to your Bank Account.

  1. Paytm Money
    This is another app for traders. If you want to start your investment journey online then you can start investing through the Paytm Money app. In this trading app, you can invest your money in Stocks, Mutual Funds, F&O, IPOs, NPS etc investment options.

You don’t need to pay any charges for Demat and Trading account opening. Also, they will not charge any AMC Charges from you. You have to pay ₹10 per order in F&O. Download the Paytm Money app and start investing in stocks, mutual funds, NPS in 30 minutes.

Paytm Money Refer and Earn
As of now, Paytm Money doesn’t have a referral option in the app. But soon you will get to see the refer and earn option in the Paytm Money app. But if you invite your friends on the Paytm Money through OneCode then you will get a ₹300 cashback for every new user.

  1. Zerodha Trading App

Many beginners, as well as pro investors, prefer this app for their first choice trading app. I feel Zerodha is one of the best trading apps in India 2022. It comes with many interesting features and easy to understanding interface. This app is also known as Kite by Zerodha.

Zerodha does not ask you for any charges to open a Demat account here. After opening your Demat and Trading account on the Zerodha app you can open it by entering 6 digit pin. You can check all the stocks and charts in the watchlist tab. If you have invested money in the Zeordha app then all the shares will show on the portfolio tab. In this app, you can invest your money in stocks, IPO, SIP, Mutual Funds investment options.

Zerodha Refer and Earn
If you want to earn brokerage sharing for a lifetime then you can use the Zerodha referral offer. If you refer your friends and family members to the Kite by Zerodha app then you will get 10% of the brokerage sharing for a lifetime. Also, you will get 300 reward points for each referral. You can withdraw the brokerage earnings to your bank account and redeem your reward points to subscribe to get their paid services.

  1. 5Paisa Trading App
    Another best trading app is 5Paisa. It has been with us for a long time. You can invest your money in this app on mutual funds, insurance, stocks, IPO, stock SIP, gold, IPO, loans and US stocks. In the app, you can check the live chart, Nifty 50, Sensex status and much more in a single click. On the margin calculator tab, you can check all stocks. Also, with the price alert option, you can set a price alert and sell stocks at the best time. I don’t think 5Paisa is one of the best trading apps in India because you have to maintain a ₹100 minimum balance and they will charge ₹30 charges every month.

5Paisa Refer and Earn
If you have some friends then you can earn free brand vouchers and up to 40% brokerage sharing for a lifetime. For the first referral, you will earn ₹500 in your 5Paisa wallet. After that, you will get 12.5%, 25% and up to 40% brokerage sharing if you refer up to 26+ friends.

  1. IIFL Securities
    This is another best trading app in India 2022. IIFL is a large financial service provider in India. It offers a wide range of services. The IIFL Securities offers research-based advisory services for derivatives, commodities, currencies, IPO, loans, stocks etc.

You don’t pay any extra charges to open a Demat account on the IIFL Securities trading app. This is also one of the best trading apps in India that comes with zero account opening fees. For some segments, they will charge a flat ₹20 per order. Also, you have to pay AMC charges every year. The AMC charge is ₹200/year. Although you don’t have to pay for the first year.

IIFL Securities Refer and Earn
This trading app also comes with a referral offer. If you refer a friend then you will earn free gift vouchers. If your friends join through your IIFL Securities referral link and open their Demat account then you will get rewards of ₹500 for every successful referral.

  1. ShareKhan Trading App
    This is one of the oldest and the best trading apps in India for the past 21 years. It comes with a wide range of products that will help you to build a diversified portfolio. You can do market research with the help of its advanced charts feature. Your investment decisions will keep improving with its research reports option. There are no minimum deposits required in this app. You will get free learnings on stocks, mutual funds within the app. With the ShareKhan trading app, you can’t trade globally. You have to pay 0.50% or 10 paise per share or ₹16 per scrip whichever is lower for equity delivery.

ShareKhan Referral Program
If you refer a new friend to the ShareKhan trading app then you will get a 15% brokerage commission for 1 year. To earn this commission your friend needs to complete their Demat account on this trading app and they need to trade in this app. The more they invest the more brokerage you will earn. Also, you will get 1-year of free access to TradeTiger (ShareKhan desktop trading platform).

  1. SBI Securities
    We all have trust in SBI. Many of us have a Bank account and a maximum of us have an SBI bank account. The SBI also has a trading app called SBI Securities. Here you can open your Demat and trading account and start investing. They have an option called ‘Knowledge Centre’ where you can read their blogs and watch videos related to stocks, mutual funds to improve your knowledge of investment. I feel it is a great option for beginner investors in India. They have a mobile app and web platform. You can download their app and start investing money online. The investment options are equity, derivatives, mutual funds, ETFs, insurance, fixed income, IPO, loans etc.

SBI Securities Refer and Earn
If you refer a new user to join the SBI Securities then you will earn up to ₹750 vouchers. To generate your unique referral link you have to enter your PAN number, SSL employee code on the referral page. If your referred friend opens their Demat account through your link then you will get a ₹250 voucher. If your referred friends execute 3 trades from the new account within a period of 60 days then you will get another ₹500 from them.

Difference Between Intraday and Delivery Trading
Before searching for the best trading apps in India, you need to learn the basics of trading. Unless you have the basic idea you can’t make a profit through online trading. So it is better to learn about the basics of trading and the difference between Intraday trading and delivery.

Intraday Trading: If you buy shares and sell on the same day then it is called Intraday Trading. If you don’t sell then during the market closing time your shares will automatically be sold if you have bought shares as Intraday Trading. The net holding position for the Intraday Trading is zero. Intraday Trading is also known as day trading. Basically, full-time traders use this method to make quick money. In this process, you can make a profit in a quick time. At the same time, you will lose money too. Intraday Traders often use a target price and then they sell their shares if their shares reach the target price.

Delivery Trades: In the Delivery Trade all your purchased shares will be added to your Demat account. You can hold shares for as long as you want. If you think then you can sell and make a profit on it. Yes, it is true that you can make a quick profit in Intraday Trading. But as compared to Intraday, Delivery Trading is a slightly low risky process.

How To Do Intraday Trading?
First of all, open any trading app.
Select any share.
Then select quantity, price limit and type.
Chose ”Intraday” from the Type option.
Now tap on ”Buy”.
Don’t forget to sell shares at the right time.
How To Do Delivery Trading?
First of all, open any trading app.
Select any share.
Then select quantity, type and price limit.
Chose ”Delivery” option in the Type option.
Now chose the ”Buy” option to buy shares.
Hold shares and sell at the right time.
FAQs: Best Trading Apps

  1. Which is the best trading app in India?
    I have started investing my money in 2019. Since then I have used many trading apps such as Upstox, Groww, Zerodha etc. Among these, I feel Zerodha and Upstox are the two best trading apps in India 2022.
  2. Can I withdraw the full amount from Zerodha?
    You can withdraw all your withdrawal balance. The minimum withdrawal balance of the Zerodha app is ₹100.
  3. What is the minimum balance in 5Paisa?
    The minimum balance in 5Paisa is ₹100. Also, they will charge ₹30 every month as a charge.


Let us know your thoughts in the comment section below.

Check out other publications to gain access to more digital resources if you are just starting out with Flux Resource.
Also contact us today to optimize your business(s)/Brand(s) for Search Engines

Leave a Reply

Flux Resource Help Chat
Send via WhatsApp